Mitsuye Endo, Mine Okubo


• Michi Nishiura Weglyn (1926-1999). She authored the book “Years of Infamy: The Untold Story of America’s Concentration Camps,” which revealed the truth and the injustices perpetrated by the U.S. government upon our people during World War II. 真実- Shinjitsu.

• Iva Ikuko Toguri (1916-2006). She took the rap unjustly for the ten so-called “Tokyo Roses” with indomitable courage and dignity before the U.S. District Court. After serving over six years in the federal prison, she was given a full and unconditional pardon by President Gerald R. Ford in 1977 due to perjured testimonies during her trial. 勇気 - Yūki.

• Mitsuye Endo (1920-2006). She was the litigant in the case of Ex parte Endo who remained incarcerated in three different concentration camps, stood fast courageously and won her case that freed 120,313 Japanese Americans out of America’s concentration camps. 信念 - Shinnen.

• Mine Okubo (1912-2001). Through her book, “Citizen 13660,” she illustrated and wrote and with her paintings told the story of the unjust incarceration of the Japanese Americans into America’s concentration camps during World War II. 記録 - Kiroku.

Lest we forget.

Stanley Kanzaki writes from New York.

Iva Toguri, Michi Weglyn

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